Answer to this essay -200 words minimum(o)

I need to make an answer based on this essay on Purnell Model as a cultural competence. Must be a minimum of 200 words. References supporting the answer should be included.

Purnell model contains rings that explain the development of cultural awareness and how it expands. It outlines the elements that impact an individual’s culture. This model is utilized as a model for teaching intercultural competence in different professions. Even though this model was initially developed to be applied to nursing students, it can be used by other professions such as teaching and management among others (Mardis & Oberg, 2019). It uses various ideas and concepts on individuals, cultures, healthcare professionals, and healthcare. With this model, it makes it possible to create and evaluate cultural competence. The cultural characteristics may be based on factors such as religion, race, sexual orientation, physical characteristics, and gender, among others.

The Purnell model contains twelve cultural domains. The first domain is the overview/heritage. It describes concepts that are related to a country of origin, politics, economics, and occupation, among others. Second domain is communication. This involves the concepts that are linked to languages and dialects. Third domain is family roles and organization. Its concepts are interconnected with the head of a household and roles based on gender. The fourth domain is the workforce. Its concepts are linked to autonomy and communication styles based on ethnicity, among others. The fifth domain is bicultural ecology. Its concepts are based on an individual ethnic and racial origin. Sixth domain is high-risk behavior. This may involve issues such as the use of drugs, among others. Seventh domain is nutrition. Its concepts are involved with an individual’s nutrition such as food choices (Mardis & Oberg, 2019). The eighth domain is pregnancy and childbearing which is involved with concepts that are related to fertility practices. The ninth domain is death rituals which are involved with the cultural view of death. The tenth domain is spirituality which is involved with religious practices. Eleventh domain is healthcare practices which focus mainly on healthcare. The last domain is healthcare practitioner which focuses on concepts such as status and perceptions of tradition.


The first assumption of the Purnell model is that all healthcare professionals should be impacted by the same information on cultural diversity. All healthcare professions should also have the same metaparadigm concepts of health, person, community, and family. The second assumption is that no culture is superior to the other. Cultures are different but have similarities. The third assumption is for a caregiver to increase or improve their self-awareness, they need to know about cultural awareness. The fourth assumption is that for a provision of culturally sensitive and culturally competent care, healthcare professionals need to have information on cultural-general and cultural-specific. The fifth assumption is that there are various factors that healthcare should consider for it to be effective. Some include attitudes, beliefs, and values among others (Mardis & Oberg, 2019). The sixth assumption of this model is that understanding culture will help in reducing cases of bias and prejudice. Lastly, everyone should be respected regardless of their cultural heritage or uniqueness.

How this model helps us to provide cultural competence healthcare

Purnell model may be used by healthcare providers in any healthcare setting and hence may help in the provision of a team-oriented healthcare environment. The model provides a framework that can be used by healthcare providers in different settings and disciplines. This model will hence lead to improved opportunities, provision of individualized care, and prevention of illnesses and diseases (Douglas, Pacquiao & Purnell, 2018). With the general knowledge and skills in culture, healthcare professionals will be culturally competent.

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